ocellate river stingray

Scientific name Potamotrygon motoro
Descriptor Müller & Henle
Year of description 1841
IUCN category DD
Family Potamotrygonidae
Genus Potamotrygon
Potamotrygon motoro Potamotrygon motoro

Introduction

Potamotrygon motoro, commonly known as ocellate river stingray, is a fresh water fish from the Amérique du Sud.

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Who is it?

Morphology

  • Average size
    45 cm
  • Maximum size
    50 cm
  • Longevity
    12 year
  • Shape
    Circular
  • Mimicry
    mud
  • Average size
    45 cm
  • Maximum size
    50 cm
  • Longevity
    12 year
  • Shape
    Circular
  • Mimicry
    mud

How to recognize the ocellate river stingray ?

The ocellate river stingray measures between 45 and 50 cm. This fish is bicolore with a predominantly marron and beige body.

Sexual dimorphism

Behaviour & Life cycle

  • diet
    carnivorous
  • Sociability
    solitary
  • territorial
    No
  • Way of living
    nocturnal

The ocellate river stingray hunts in the stalk and is one of the predators of its biotope. Opportunistic, it does not hesitate to attack any smaller animal nearby.

The ocellate river stingray is a fish solitary naturally found on the bottom. This species is carnivorous . This fish lives mainly at night. Usually, it leaves its hiding place and starts to be active once it gets dark.

n general, outside of the hunting season, this species does not care much about other animals crossing its path.

Reproduction

Risks for humans

  • Venomous
    Yes

This species is venomous and can cause serious injuries when touched.

What to do in the event of a sting?

in case of sting, the following rules should be followed, in this order:

  • Isolate the victim from the danger and quickly remove him or her from the water
  • Call for help
  • Lay the victim down in a half-sitting position and avoid any effort
  • Immobilize the affected limb
  • Clean the wound
  • The venom of this species being thermolabile, it can be neutralized if it is submitted to a temperature of about 45 °C. It is therefore possible to heat the wound. This popular technique should be practiced with great care so as not to aggravate the wound by burning it. It is advisable to immerse the affected limb in hot water.
  • If the puncture is too deep, heating the wound will be less effective.

Sometimes the sting can cause discomfort or even loss of consciousness in the victim. The stings are usually very painful.

Where to find it?

Where to see this species?

What is its habitat?

Natural environment characteristics

  • Temperature
    24 - 30 °C
  • pH (acidity)
    5 - 6
  • gh (hardness)
    2 - 10
  • Flow
    Medium and Slow

Biotope presentation

The acidification of water comes from the decomposition of plants. This phenomenon changes the color of the water, which tends to turn brown. In some areas particularly rich in organic matter, the water is so dark that it is called "black water".

This animal evolves in areas characterized by a strong presence of vegetation (aquatic and marsh plants, decaying organic matter, roots...).

Species of the same biotope

Main recommendations for fishkeeping

Deontology

In order to preserve wildlife, if you acquire this animal, it must not be released into the wild. See also, the Fishipedia charter.

Fishipedia supports the practice of responsible and environmentally friendly aquarium keeping. We encourage maintenance if it is motivated by a desire to understand the biological functioning of living things and if it is done with respect for animal life.

We believe that aquaristics is an opening to the discovery of aquatic environments, especially freshwater, and that this knowledge is necessary to better protect and respect these environments. Logically, we refute the compulsive purchase of animals that would not find a sufficient and / or adapted place in the host aquarium.

Our recommendations

  • Min volume
    800 liters
  • Population min
    1
  • Temperature
    24 - 30 °C
  • pH (acidity)
    5 - 6

Characteristics

  • Difficulty breeding
    moderate
  • Robustness
    tolerant
  • Behaviour
    peaceful
  • Availability
    rare

General reminders

It is strongly advised to read the complete dedicated file and to get information on the feedbacks of maintenance of the envisaged animal, this to avoid any potential conflict whose end result is generally the death of the individual (or the other inhabitants). It is important not to overload your aquarium to limit pollution. This will make maintenance easier.

In nature, animals are subject to weather conditions and live in waters with variable characteristics. The recommendations offered by our team for aquarium maintenance are a guidance and cannot be assimilated to scientific datas.

Beware, as this species is potentially dangerous to humans, it requires for its maintenance the obtaining of a "certificate of capacity of breeding". For professionals, it is necessary to have a "certificate of presentation to the public".

General reminder on maintenance datas

Le démarrage d'un aquarium est une partie primordiale pour l'équilibre et le bien-être des poissons. Lorsque l'on met en eau un aquarium, l'eau passe naturellement par un cycle biologique : le cycle de l'azote. Celui-ci dure environ trois semaines. Tous les 2 jours, nous vous conseillons de tester votre eau jusqu'à ce que le taux de nitrite soit à zéro pendant plusieurs jours d'affilée.

Pour accélérer ce cycle, vous pouvez utiliser un activateur de bactéries comme JBL Denitrol. Cette solution riche en bactéries vivantes et enzymes permet une mise en place rapide du cycle de l'azote. Les poissons peuvent alors être introduits plus rapidement.

Il est important de tester l'eau de son aquarium régulièrement pour maintenir un environnement sain pour les poissons et les autres habitants. Les tests d'eau permettent de mesurer les niveaux de différents paramètres tels que le pH, la dureté totale, ainsi que les taux de nitrates, de nitrites et d'ammoniaque.

Pour réaliser ces tests, vous pouvez utiliser des produits d'analyse spécialisés tels que JBL ProScan qui permet de réaliser un diagnostic de l'eau directement via un smartphone. Il existe également des coffrets de tests plus classiques de bandelettes, comme JBL PROAQUATEST.

En cas d’usage de l’eau du robinet, vous pouvez utiliser un conditionneur d’eau de type Biotopol de JBL pour éliminer les substances nocives comme le chlore, le cuivre, le plomb et le zinc. Les conditionneurs d'eau garantissent une meilleure santé aux poissons et une meilleure croissance des plantes.

Chlorine and chloramine are dangerous for the health of animals. Used to disinfect water, these agents are present in significant quantities in tap water. We recommend using an anti-chlorine agent every time you change the water. In addition to chlorine, treatments and medicines sold for aquarium use sometimes contain dangerous heavy metals in high doses.

Specific needs for the ocellate river stingray

The ocellate river stingray is a species which lives naturally at a temperature between 24 °C and 30 °C. For proper maintenance, the temperature should never exceed the 33°C for long periods. Nitrate levels should remain below 50mg/L. To keep the water clean and unpolluted, plan on changing 20% to 30% of the water volume each month.

The breeding of this species is accessible on condition of being well informed about its needs in aquarium . Any cohabitants must be chosen with care to avoid the loss of animals.

This species is very rare in the aquarium trade. Instead, it is maintained by knowledgeable aquarists who own and breed individuals from wild origin strains. If you want to get this species, we advise you to contact specialized clubs. }Specimens from long time breeding are a bit easier to breed but you have to respect the particular water parameters.

Cohabitation & Environment

This fish being a predatory species, it is recommended to maintain it in a specific environment, without other species. Indeed, any crustacean or fish of lower size will become a potential prey. A 800 liter aquarium with at least 250 cm of frontage is the minimum recommended for its maintenance. If you still try to associate it with other species, the cohabitants must be of a size at least comparable to the predator in a much larger volume. The aquarium can be provided with many hiding places and a large space to allow each individual to find refuge if necessary.

The species enjoys a particularly vegetation-rich environment. The addition of plants will provide many useful hiding places for resting. These areas are also conducive to possible breeding in the aquarium.

Acid Water Maintenance

The ocellate river stingray living naturally in acidic water, generally in "black" or "sieved" water, the implementation of a filtration on peat is ideal for its balance. Adding decaying leaves and alder fruit can significantly improve living conditions by naturally increasing acidity of some water.

Tips for feeding

The ocellate river stingray is carnivorous.

You should not overfeed your residents to avoid polluting the water. For most species, it is better to feed a few small portions each day rather than one large meal.

Food recommendations from our partner JBL - Products PRONOVO

Reproduction protocol

  • egg-laying protection
    No

Hybridization risks

In general, it is advised not to mix several species of the same genus or different varieties of the same species, to avoid the risks of hybridization.

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To go further

To read on the web

Sources & Contributions

Participation & Validation

The Fishipedia team and specialist contributors are committed to providing high-quality content. However, although the information comes from scientific sources or testimonials from specialists, the cards may contain inaccuracies.

Benoit Chartrer

Benoit Chartrer

Robert Allgayer

Robert Allgayer

Adrien Falzon

Adrien Falzon

Translation

Translation done with the valuable contribution of our translators, who make this information available to a wider audience. We sincerely thank them for their commitment.

In collaboration with : Fédération Française Aquariophilie

Bibliographic references

XV. RAYAS DE AGUA DULCE (POTAMOTRYGONIDAE) DE SURAMÉRICA Parte II Colombia, Brasil, Perú, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay y Argentina - Carlos A. Lasso - Ricardo de Souza Rosa - Mónica A. Morales-Betancourt - MARCELO R. DE CARVALHO - Domingos Garrone-Neto - Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt - 2016.

Systematic revision of the Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841) species complex in the Paraná-Paraguay basin, with description of two new ocellated species (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae) - Thiago Silva Loboda - MARCELO R. DE CARVALHO - Neotrop. ichthyol. - 2013.

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